The central objective of the Paris Agreement is to keep global temperatures rising “at a level well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to continue efforts to limit the increase in temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.” This is the goal of the 1.5oC Paris Agreement that CTU calls the Paris Agreement1 for all countries to work together to bring greenhouse gas emissions to zero in the second half of the 21st century, when zero emissions are reached being determined by the best science available to achieve the long-term temperature target. The long-term temperature goal of the Paris Agreement goes much further, both legally and in terms of content, compared to the previous goal of keeping warming below 2 degrees Celsius (Schleussner et al. 2016). While the Paris Agreement ultimately aims to limit global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius this century, many studies evaluating the voluntary commitments of some countries in Paris show that the cumulative effect of these emission reductions will not be significant enough to keep temperatures below that ceiling. Indeed, the targets set by the target countries should limit the future increase in temperature between 2.7 and 3.7 degrees Celsius. At the same time, recent assessments of countries` developments in the framework of their climate targets in Paris indicate that some countries are already not meeting their commitments. Under the UNITED Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, legal instruments can be adopted to achieve the convention`s objectives. For the period 2008-2012, measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were agreed in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The scope of the protocol has been extended until 2020 with the Doha amendment to the protocol.
 In order to contribute to the objectives of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national plans to combat climate change (nationally defined contributions, NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. Q: The agreement will not enter into force until 2020. What will happen between now and then? Countries have every reason to respect the terms of the agreement.