The Paris Agreement is the first truly comprehensive commitment to the fight against the climate crisis. In 2015, 195 countries and the European Union signed a single comprehensive agreement to keep global warming well below 2 degrees Celsius – and to do everything in its power to exceed 1.5 degrees Celsius. The pioneering agreement was successful where previous attempts failed because each country set its own emission reduction targets and adopted its own strategies to achieve them. In addition, nations, inspired by the actions of local and regional governments, businesses and others, have recognized that the fight against climate change brings considerable socio-economic benefits. This article proposes an innovative approach that complements existing research on how to ensure equity in international climate policy through the NDCs. Existing research includes the bottom-up approach of Winkler et al. (2018) which examines countries` justifications for equity in CNs. They show that countries have presented a large number of unsubstantiated indicators and approaches. In contrast, the top-down approach of Du Pont et al. (2017), Brown et al.
(2018), Zimm and Nakicenovic (2019) and Climate Action Tracker (n.d.) compare NDC`s ambitions with overall emission reduction targets under different assumptions. Such assessments make normative assessments of restricted emission allowances (Kartha et al., 2018), particularly in the absence of an operational definition of CBDR-RC under the UNFCCC. By examining consistency with the subtle differentiation of the Paris Agreement, we try to offer an informed approach to how to ensure fairness by the NDCs, avoiding normative judgments on what constitutes a “fair” contribution. Recognizing that many developing countries and small island developing states that have contributed the least to climate change are most likely to suffer the consequences, the Paris Agreement contains a plan for developed countries – and others that are able to do so – to continue to provide financial resources to help developing countries reduce and increase their capacity to withstand climate change. The agreement builds on the financial commitments of the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance to developing countries to $100 billion per year by 2020. (To put it in perspective, in 2017 alone, global military spending amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States. The Copenhagen Pact also created the Green Climate Fund to mobilize transformation funding with targeted public dollars. The Paris agreement expected the world to set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target by 2020 and create mechanisms to achieve this.
The Paris Agreement is an environmental agreement that was adopted by almost all nations in 2015 to combat climate change and its negative effects. The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century, while continuing to pursue ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees.